Terms Relating to Lie Detectors Explained – Letter O
Objective Scoring System (OSS)
A form of 7-position scoring where the individually assigned values are
derived from ratios that come from measurements of the “Kircher features.”
Because the scores come from measurements, the OSS eliminates subjectivity
in chart interpretation. However, it is very time-intensive when performed
manually, and impractical for routine use. The OSS has been automated by
some computer polygraph manufacturers. The OSS version 3 (Nelson, Krapohl
& Handler, 2008) can accommodate almost all probable-lie CQTs. See Dutton
(2000); Krapohl & McManus (1999).
Oculomotor Deception Test
A credibility assessment technology that uses eye movements and
pupillary responses from examinees as they read questions. See: Webb,
Hacker, Osher, Cook, Woltz, Kristjansson & Kircher (2009).
Expression often used to indicate the consequence of using different
length recording pens with analog polygraphs. The practice in the profession
was to use a longer (0.5- to 0.8-inch) pen for the electrodermal channel to
permit wide excursions of the pen without it becoming entangled with the
respiration and cardiosphygmograph recording pens. The result was that the
electrodermal channel was “offset” from the other tracings, usually the
equivalent of 5 to 8 seconds. None of the computer polygraphs have this offset.
Type of conditioning in which reward or punishment is given to the
subject, depending on the preceding behavior. Rewards increase the likelihood
of the recurrence of the behavior, and punishment discourages the behavior.
Biofeedback uses operant conditioning to help patients reduce blood pressure,
electrodermal activity, and other physiological processes. Since operant
conditioning can be used to teach individuals to regulate their own autonomic
responses, it is a method of teaching PDD countermeasures. The little
research that has evaluated the influence of biofeedback training on PDD
efficacy has not found an effect. See: Honts (1987).
Orienting Response (OR)
Heightened sensitivity to specific sensory input that is characterized by
increased information processing, narrowed attentional concentration, and
physiologic excitation. PDD test question series never begin with a relevant
question because the physiological pattern of an OR can be easily confused
with a response indicative of deception.
Expression coined by Paul Ekman to denote the misattribution of the
fear or emotional distress of an innocent person as an indication of guilt. See:
A value beyond the normal range of values. For example, the last value
in the following series could be considered an outlier: 5,9,2,6,6,8,3,1,6,9,5,32.
Outliers may be excluded from data collection because they have inordinate
influence on central tendency. What constitutes an outlier, or extreme score,
is established a priori. A real life experimental example of an outlier might be
where reaction times are being measured, and the subject falls asleep during
one trial. While most scores might be in the 0.5- to 0.9-second range, the
subject’s latency of response to the stimulus where he begins sleeping might go
several seconds, thus producing an outlier. The term outlier has been
introduced into the science of PDD with the development of computerized
scoring algorithms along with their precise measurements of responses.
outside issue question
See symptomatic question.
One of four tracks in the Quadri-Track Zone Comparison Technique,
which include the primary, secondary, and inside tracks. The outside track
consists of two symptomatic questions. See: Matte (1996).
Overall Truth Question
PDD test question that addresses the examinee’s overall truthfulness or
intention to be truthful during testing. Used in some multiple-issue screening